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Stage 2

Detailed reading

Once the text has been read aloud and discussed, the teacher guides the class to identify information that they will use later for writing. Students can highlight or underline each chunk of information. This can be done at two levels.

Level one: Long texts

Long texts can be read paragraph by paragraph. After reading each paragraph the teacher directs students to mark two or three items of key information in the paragraph. These items will be used later for making notes and writing summaries.

Paragraph-by-paragraph reading can happen very quickly. With practice, students soon learn how to identify key information themselves.

Level two: Short texts

With short texts or key passages in long texts, the teacher may guide students to identify important information in each sentence. With practice, students learn to become independent at identifying information. As each sentence is discussed in depth, high achieving students benefit as well as students experiencing difficulties.

Sentence-by-sentence reading takes time and should only be done on short passages that are essential to the subject area learning taking place.

In this video, the teacher briefly prepares the students for each section of text by explaining what it is about, then reading it aloud as the students follow.

The teacher then guides the class to identify each important chunk of information in the text, asking each student in turn.

Students then highlight specific words in the text and discuss their meaning in more depth. This may involve defining words, explaining concepts or asking students to interpret meanings.

Video transcript

Presenter

[Talking head]

In the lesson here, the teacher briefly prepares each sentence by saying what it’s about, then reads it aloud as the students follow. She then guides the class to identify each chunk of information, by saying what it means, and asking a student to say the words. The teacher asks individual students in turn, so that they all get to participate actively and get affirmed. She then directs the class to highlight the exact words, and discusses their meaning in more depth. This may involve defining words, explaining concepts or asking students to interpret meanings. This is a very effective way to combine classroom management with learning the curriculum and developing skills in reading.

Teacher

[Teacher and class discuss text]

So, let's now look at it in detail, and prepare to be writing it ourselves. So we're going to go through sentence-by-sentence now. So you've got your highlighters there and we're going to identify the key words in the text. Coming back up, we've looked at the big structure of the text. Coming back up to the Phenomenon. That first sentence is talking about what's going to be explained. It's talking about why it's called a Water Cycle overall. Alright, so I'll read you the sentence. Water is found in many different forms on Earth and is constantly moving from one place to another. As it moves, it changes state in cycles, from liquid water to water vapour, sometimes to ice, and back to liquid again. Alright, so Zac, can you tell me, what is this all about? What's the beginning there?

Student

Water.

Teacher

Water. Fantastic, that's right. Can we all highlight the word water, please, the very first word in our text.

[Students highlight texts]

OK, so it goes on to say that water is found in many different forms. But what is the water doing? Have a look through your sentence. Rodney, what is the water doing?

Student

It's constantly moving.

[Teacher and class discuss text]

Teacher

Excellent, can you give me a little bit more information about that?

Student

From one place to another.

Teacher

OK, so let's highlight that whole section that it's constantly moving from one place to another.

[Students highlight texts]

Teacher

[Teacher and class discuss text]

Fantastic. OK, the next sentence gives us something else that the water is doing. Now, I've read it to you before. As it moves it… Alex? As it moves it...

Student

Changes.

Teacher

Changes. Changes what?

Student

Changes state.

Teacher

Changes state. Remember, ‘state’'s the scientific word we use for whether it's a solid, a liquid or a gas, or what form it's in. So can we highlight 'changes state'.

OK, can we highlight the 'in cycles' as well.

[Students highlight texts]

So we've actually got those four words highlighted together, 'changes state in cycles'. So what were those states again? The end of the sentence names them. So, Amon, from…?

Student

From liquid…

[Teacher and class discuss text]

Teacher

Liquid. To...?

Student

Water.

Teacher

Water vapour. OK. That's the key that it's a gas, our word 'vapour'. So, if we can highlight 'liquid water' and 'water vapour'. Peter, can you see sometimes then we might get a solid. What's our name for solid water?

Student

Ice.

Teacher

Yep, and then back to... What's the end of the sentence there? The last one for us to highlight?

Student

Liquid again.

Teacher

Back to liquid again. So there are two sides to the Water Cycle. Water might have travelled a long way from oceans to get to the mountains, or a long way from a long river system. But it's also changing state. It changes from liquid to gas to liquid, maybe to solid and then back again, all the way through the cycle. What happens to it in the atmosphere? It becomes…?

Student

Cold.

Teacher

Cold. Excellent. So, when it becomes cold, what are we forming?

Student

Forms clouds.

Teacher

Thank you, Ng, excellent. So can we highlight … just make sure we've highlighted the words 'cold' and ‘forms clouds'.

[Students highlight texts]

Good

[Teacher and class discuss text]

Why do you think, in the diagram, that we have a change in the colour of the clouds? What might that be related to? What's going on? Alex?

Student

Sometimes it makes it rain.

Teacher

Yeah, so what must be happening in the clouds?

Student

It gets darker.

Teacher

It gets darker, and it gets heavier. What's in this cloud? Water in what state?

Student

As ice.

Teacher

It could be icy, falling on the mountains as sleet, or even as snow. But there's more liquid water than solid water.

Student

Condensation.

Teacher

There's more condensation that's happened. That's right. So when you get the lighter, fluffier clouds they might still be just in the process of the water coming from the vapour back to the liquid. But you know it's going to be a real downpour when the skies get dark.

Presenter

[Talking head]

Notice how engaged all students in this class are in the task and the topic that they’re studying. The teacher has no problems with classroom management, because she’s engaging them all in learning by giving them all success

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