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Stage 4

Joint construction

In this stage, the class jointly constructs a new text from the notes, guided by the teacher. Using leading questions, the teacher guides students to consider the meaning of each chunk of information in the notes and how they may be re-worded into coherent sentences.

Jointly constructing a text is not a simple process. The teacher should balance the amount of scaffolding provided, to allow students to generate their own ideas about the text. It is a good idea for teachers to have a clear idea about where to take the text, before engaging the students in the joint construction stage.

In this video, the students offer suggestions for re-wording the notes and the teacher guides final decisions. Once decisions about wording have been made, the sentences are scribed on the board.

Because the notes have been organised and labelled, it is easy for students to recognise structures such as paragraphing in the new text.

Once the sentences have been completed, students label each section again. This provides a strong framework for students’ independent writing

Video transcript

Presenter

[Talking head]

In Joint Construction, the class jointly constructs a new text from the notes, guided by the teacher. Using leading questions, the teacher guides students to consider the meaning of each chunk of information in the notes, and how they may be written in new wordings. For example, in the lesson here, the teacher points to notes that say ‘water – moving’ and asks the class to rephrase this in a sentence. One student suggests ‘keeps on’ and she asks the class to put it together as ‘keeps on moving’. Again she points to the notes and asks a student to identify ‘changes state’. Another student suggests ‘constantly changing state’ and she guides the class to add these states to the sentence.

Teacher

[Teacher introduces task]

So what we're going to do now is write our own explanation, making sure that we look and remember … Alex … about the sequence of steps. Pop your sheet under your book because what I want you to practise focusing on is just going from the notes, not reading the same sentences again off the original sheet.

So Mert, do you want to come up on the board … smartboard and write the heading for us in the middle. Just write 'The Water Cycle'. So as a heading in your books.

[Students scribe text on board as teacher and class discuss wordings]

So we're going to follow the same pattern in our writing as was the text that we've just read. We need to have the same introduction, identify what it is we're going to talk about, move through the steps, and finish it with a conclusion.

How about Peter? Can you come up and write the first sentence then, please? We're going to start with water. What is it that the water does?

Student

Moving.

Teacher

It's moving. OK, good. What does it do? I can't say 'water moving', can I? We need to change the word.

Student

Keeps on.

Teacher

We could say 'keeps on moving'. So yep 'keeps on'. So Peter, if you can write up, remember capital to start the sentence. 'Water keeps on'. Water keeps on … what is it keeping on doing?

Student

Moving.

Teacher

'Keeps on moving'.

So it's moving. What else is it doing? From our notes up here, what else is it doing?

Student

Changing.

Teacher

Changing. Good. What's it changing?

Student

The state.

Teacher

The state, from solid, liquid, gas. OK, so we're going to try to build that into the sentence.

Student

It constantly changes state.

Teacher

OK, great idea Trent. 'It constantly changes state'.

[Teacher spells out 'constantly' 'changes state']

What if we said, here in our notes that it's going from...

Student

Liquid water.

Teacher

Liquid water, Jeremy, yep, to...

Student

To vapour, to ice, to liquid.

Teacher

OK, excellent, Jeremy.

Student

Back to solid.

Teacher

Maybe to a solid.

Student

Maybe to a solid.

Teacher

You're doing well, that's alright. And we want to get this idea of a cycle. Where did it finish?

[Teacher spells out 'solid']

Student

Back to the liquid.

Teacher

OK. So the main idea we've got to convey in this paragraph is that it's about ‘evaporates’, or the word for the process is… Can we say that together again?

Students

Evaporation.

Teacher

Good. What's this third dot point? Which section of our writing did we label it as?

Student

Step 1.

Teacher

It's part of Step 1, yeah. So how am I going to show that in our rewrite?

Student

Start a new paragraph.

Teacher

Start a new paragraph, fantastic. Starting from here, what was it about the sun that actually causes the evaporation?

Students

The heat.

Teacher

The heat. So let's start with that, Zac. Evaporates … what was it we were evaporating?

Student

From the water surface.

Teacher

So 'water from the surface'.

Student

So water from the surface?

Teacher

Yep. OK. So what do I want to say about the vapour? Ng, where's it coming from this time?

Student

Oh, water.

Teacher

OK, it's coming from...?

Students

Trees and other plants.

Teacher

Trees and other plants.

Student

Water vapour is coming from.

Teacher

Absolutely. Great idea, Nathan. So remember in your books, this is still a paragraph. Just starting straight after the dot. Yep, good. 'Water vapour', now Amon, what were you saying?

Student

Water vapour comes from trees and other plants.

Teacher

It's not the only place, is it? So let's include the word 'also'. Amon, continue with your suggestion.

Student

Trees and other plants.

Teacher

Good, trees and other plants.

Student

Trees and other plants.

Teacher

We're going to keep the technical term in the one sentence here.

Student

So this is called transpiration.

Teacher

It's not really a 'so' link.

Students

This is called transpiration.

Student

Which is called.

Teacher

‘Which is called’, you're right, Jeremy. Good one. OK. 'Water vapour also comes from trees and other plants…'

Students

Which is called.

Teacher

'Which is called transpiration'. Well done.

[Student spells out 'transpiration']

Teacher

Name the process. Well done, Rodney. OK, so in your books, can we label it again so we can still see this section. So what was this paragraph called?

Students

Phenomenon.

Teacher

Yep, and this one?

Students

Step 1.

Teacher

This paragraph we've started our sequential explanation. Good.

Presenter

[Talking head]

When the board’s full, the teacher asks the class to label each section again, as they did with the notes. These labels are written on the board, and in students’ copies. This gives students a strong framework when they come to write texts of their own.

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